Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are highly-sensitive photodetectors emerging as the technology of choice for many applications, including among the others, large high-energy physics experiments and detectors for space instruments, where they are often exposed to a large amount of radiation. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in assessing the performance deterioration of such detectors after ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, such as protons, neutrons and X or gamma rays. It is therefore interesting to characterize the effect of irradiation on such Geiger-mode detectors, differentiating between the ionizing and non-ionizing energy-loss effects. Moreover, it is interesting to compare the radiation damage effects on several types of SiPMs, to assess the main phenomena and the deterioration mechanisms, aiming to a more radiation tolerant SiPM design. In this work we irradiated several types of SiPM structures, produced in FBK (Trento, Italy), with 40 keV X-rays, at several doses, up to 100 kGy (in silicon), performing both online measurements (after each irradiation step) and offline functional characterization, after one month of room temperature annealing. The SiPMs are made with many different technologies, in particular different layouts, junction polarities, internal structures and starting materials. We studied the variation in the reverse current–voltage curves, distinguishing the effects on multiplied and not-multiplied current components, the primary dark count rate, the correlated noise probabilities and photon detection efficiency. Comparing all the measurement results, knowing the internal structure and the fabrication processes, we were able to extract and distinguish different deterioration mechanisms, also supported by TCAD simulations on the different effects of ionizing radiation inside the microcells.

Characterization of radiation damages on Silicon photomultipliers by X-rays up to 100 kGy

Acerbi, F.;Altamura, A. R.;Merzi, S.;Gola, A.
2023

Abstract

Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are highly-sensitive photodetectors emerging as the technology of choice for many applications, including among the others, large high-energy physics experiments and detectors for space instruments, where they are often exposed to a large amount of radiation. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in assessing the performance deterioration of such detectors after ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, such as protons, neutrons and X or gamma rays. It is therefore interesting to characterize the effect of irradiation on such Geiger-mode detectors, differentiating between the ionizing and non-ionizing energy-loss effects. Moreover, it is interesting to compare the radiation damage effects on several types of SiPMs, to assess the main phenomena and the deterioration mechanisms, aiming to a more radiation tolerant SiPM design. In this work we irradiated several types of SiPM structures, produced in FBK (Trento, Italy), with 40 keV X-rays, at several doses, up to 100 kGy (in silicon), performing both online measurements (after each irradiation step) and offline functional characterization, after one month of room temperature annealing. The SiPMs are made with many different technologies, in particular different layouts, junction polarities, internal structures and starting materials. We studied the variation in the reverse current–voltage curves, distinguishing the effects on multiplied and not-multiplied current components, the primary dark count rate, the correlated noise probabilities and photon detection efficiency. Comparing all the measurement results, knowing the internal structure and the fabrication processes, we were able to extract and distinguish different deterioration mechanisms, also supported by TCAD simulations on the different effects of ionizing radiation inside the microcells.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11582/334568
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