The distribution and speciation of zinc were studied in the body of female specimens of the soil-inhabiting, plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi treated with nano ZnO and its bulk counterpart. Lyophilized nematodes were studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrometry (XANES) in order to characterize the zinc speciation. Furthermore, in the cross-sections prepared by focused ion beam technique, elemental maps were obtained using the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) technique. XANES spectra were collected from three different regions (head, midbody and tail region) of nematodes in case of two different treatments (50 mg/L bulk and nano ZnO suspension, 24 hour long treatment). The sample spectra were fitted by spectra of several reference compound, the main components of the fitted spectra are the following in all cases: bulk/nano ZnO; Zn-His and Zn3(PO4)2*xH2O. Consequently, partial biotransformation takes place for both treatments, histidine- and phosphate-rich ligands play dominant role in the binding of zinc. According to the result of the EPMA analysis, it can be established that the distribution of zinc correlates with the calcium and phosphorus distribution for both treatments. Considering the results of the investigations performed by the two microanalytical techniques, it is likely that calcium phosphate granules were formed in order to bind zinc and hereby to take part in zinc detoxification. Apparent difference in the behavior of bulk and nano-sized ZnO in the body of the investigated nematodes was not found.

The fate of nano ZnO and its bulk counterpart in the body of microscopic nematodes: An X-ray spectrometric study

Pepponi, Giancarlo;
2015

Abstract

The distribution and speciation of zinc were studied in the body of female specimens of the soil-inhabiting, plant-feeding nematode, Xiphinema vuittenezi treated with nano ZnO and its bulk counterpart. Lyophilized nematodes were studied by X-ray absorption near edge structure spectrometry (XANES) in order to characterize the zinc speciation. Furthermore, in the cross-sections prepared by focused ion beam technique, elemental maps were obtained using the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) technique. XANES spectra were collected from three different regions (head, midbody and tail region) of nematodes in case of two different treatments (50 mg/L bulk and nano ZnO suspension, 24 hour long treatment). The sample spectra were fitted by spectra of several reference compound, the main components of the fitted spectra are the following in all cases: bulk/nano ZnO; Zn-His and Zn3(PO4)2*xH2O. Consequently, partial biotransformation takes place for both treatments, histidine- and phosphate-rich ligands play dominant role in the binding of zinc. According to the result of the EPMA analysis, it can be established that the distribution of zinc correlates with the calcium and phosphorus distribution for both treatments. Considering the results of the investigations performed by the two microanalytical techniques, it is likely that calcium phosphate granules were formed in order to bind zinc and hereby to take part in zinc detoxification. Apparent difference in the behavior of bulk and nano-sized ZnO in the body of the investigated nematodes was not found.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11582/244619
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