In the present work multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), which were synthesized on uncoated silicon by an easily scaled-up catalytical chemical vapor deposition (CVD), were subjected to three different functionalization treatments. Both acid treatment, by means of a HNO3– H2SO4 1:3 mixture or chlorosulfuric acid (HSO3Cl) solution, and high temperature basic digestion with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were involved. The efficiency of these methods were investigated by thermo-gravimetric analyses (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) techniques, and the results were compared. Among the various treatments that have been tested, the 1:3 solution of nitric and sulphuric acid was the most effective in modifying the CNT surface, inducing the formation of functional groups that may be used in biological applications. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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