Remote sensing of riverbed compositions could enable advances in hydro-morphological and habitat modeling. Substrate mapping in fluvial systems has not received as much attention as in nearshore, optically shallow inland, and coastal waters. As finer spatial-resolution image data become more available, a need emerges to expand research on the remote sensing of riverbed composition. For instance, research to date has primarily been based on spectral reflectance data from above the water surface without accounting for attenuation by the water-column. This study analyzes the impacts of water-column correction for substrate mapping in shallow fluvial systems (depth < 1 m). To do so, we performed three different experiments: (a) analyzing spectroscopic measurements in a hydraulic laboratory setting, (b) simulating water-leaving radiances under various optical scenarios, and (c) evaluating the potential to map bottom composition from a WorldView-3 (WV3) image of a river in Northern Italy. Following the retrieval of depth and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), bottom reflectances were estimated using a water-column correction method. The results indicated significant enhancements in streambed maps based on bottom reflectances relative to maps produced from above-water spectra. Accounting for deep-water reflectance, embedded in the water-column correction, was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the retrieval of bottom reflectance in NIR bands, when the water column is relatively thick (>0.5 m) and/or when the water is turbid. We also found that the WV3’s red-edge band (i.e., 724 nm) considerably improved the characterization of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) densities from either above-water or retrieved bottom spectra. This study further demonstrated the feasibility of mapping SAV density classes from a WV3 image of the Sarca River in Italy by retrieving the bottom reflectances.

Mapping Substrate Types and Compositions in Shallow Streams

Niroumand-Jadidi, Milad
;
2019

Abstract

Remote sensing of riverbed compositions could enable advances in hydro-morphological and habitat modeling. Substrate mapping in fluvial systems has not received as much attention as in nearshore, optically shallow inland, and coastal waters. As finer spatial-resolution image data become more available, a need emerges to expand research on the remote sensing of riverbed composition. For instance, research to date has primarily been based on spectral reflectance data from above the water surface without accounting for attenuation by the water-column. This study analyzes the impacts of water-column correction for substrate mapping in shallow fluvial systems (depth < 1 m). To do so, we performed three different experiments: (a) analyzing spectroscopic measurements in a hydraulic laboratory setting, (b) simulating water-leaving radiances under various optical scenarios, and (c) evaluating the potential to map bottom composition from a WorldView-3 (WV3) image of a river in Northern Italy. Following the retrieval of depth and diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), bottom reflectances were estimated using a water-column correction method. The results indicated significant enhancements in streambed maps based on bottom reflectances relative to maps produced from above-water spectra. Accounting for deep-water reflectance, embedded in the water-column correction, was demonstrated to have the greatest impact on the retrieval of bottom reflectance in NIR bands, when the water column is relatively thick (>0.5 m) and/or when the water is turbid. We also found that the WV3’s red-edge band (i.e., 724 nm) considerably improved the characterization of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) densities from either above-water or retrieved bottom spectra. This study further demonstrated the feasibility of mapping SAV density classes from a WV3 image of the Sarca River in Italy by retrieving the bottom reflectances.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11582/317332
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