In this work, the stress of electroplated gold films has been analyzed versus plating current density and bath temperature. Two different plating solutions have been adopted, one being based on cyanide-gold salt, the other on sulfite-gold. Gold surface quality was investigated in the experimented range of plating temperature and current density, in order to control the limit conditions for plating: surface roughness and non-uniformity appear whenever deposition parameters are brought to the limit (typically below 2 mA/cm2 and above 5 mA/cm2).Plated gold stress measurement was carried out by wafer curvature comparison, before and after deposition, using Stoney’s formula for thin films 1,2. A current density range between 1.5 and 6 mA/cm2 and temperature range between 50 and 70 �C was investigated.Stress analysis was also carried out on a Cr-Au multilayer, which actually is the structural layer employed for gold microstructures: the multilayer consists of a chromium adhesion layer, a PVD gold seed layer and a plated gold layer, with thickness respectively 10nm, 150nm and 1500nm.A range of stress was obtained, varying from tensile to compressive: cyanide bath yielded stress from –30 MPa to about 0 MPa, and sulfite bath showed stress between –90 MPa and 110 MPa.Stress variation induced by thermal treatments after deposition was also investigated, by examining the effect of photoresist sacrificial etching on the internal stress of chromium-gold structural layers: the final stress was about 180 MPa tensile for all samples, regardless the as-deposited stress, with a variation ranging from about 80 MPa to more than 200 MPa.

Stress characterization of electroplated gold layers for low temperature surface micromachining

Margesin, Benno;Bagolini, Alvise;Guarnieri, Vittorio;Giacomozzi, Flavio;Faes, Alessandro;Decarli, Massimiliano
2003

Abstract

In this work, the stress of electroplated gold films has been analyzed versus plating current density and bath temperature. Two different plating solutions have been adopted, one being based on cyanide-gold salt, the other on sulfite-gold. Gold surface quality was investigated in the experimented range of plating temperature and current density, in order to control the limit conditions for plating: surface roughness and non-uniformity appear whenever deposition parameters are brought to the limit (typically below 2 mA/cm2 and above 5 mA/cm2).Plated gold stress measurement was carried out by wafer curvature comparison, before and after deposition, using Stoney’s formula for thin films 1,2. A current density range between 1.5 and 6 mA/cm2 and temperature range between 50 and 70 �C was investigated.Stress analysis was also carried out on a Cr-Au multilayer, which actually is the structural layer employed for gold microstructures: the multilayer consists of a chromium adhesion layer, a PVD gold seed layer and a plated gold layer, with thickness respectively 10nm, 150nm and 1500nm.A range of stress was obtained, varying from tensile to compressive: cyanide bath yielded stress from –30 MPa to about 0 MPa, and sulfite bath showed stress between –90 MPa and 110 MPa.Stress variation induced by thermal treatments after deposition was also investigated, by examining the effect of photoresist sacrificial etching on the internal stress of chromium-gold structural layers: the final stress was about 180 MPa tensile for all samples, regardless the as-deposited stress, with a variation ranging from about 80 MPa to more than 200 MPa.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11582/905
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