In this paper, we focus on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and in particular on its use for ranging, starting from the observation that data on RSSI in BLE comes nearly for free. The SDK typically provides to developers an easy way to extract this data and use it to implement their algorithms. However, RSSI based localization techniques have known limits. An alternative information to be used in ranging for localization purposes is Time-of-Flight (ToF). Still, this data is not provided by the BLE API, therefore we propose a practical approach for ToF extraction on top of BLE to be used as alternative to or in combination with RSSI. Furthermore, with the paper, we release the sources of the library used to perform the ToF measurement on BLE, that can be used per se or as input for a localization algorithm. We tested the measurements indoor and outdoor at different distances, both considering Line-of-Sight free or occluded by user body. We conclude evaluating ranging performance, test repeatability and comparing the obtained results with the popular RSSI based approach.

RSSI or Time-of-flight for Bluetooth Low Energy based localization? An experimental evaluation

Davide Giovanelli;Elisabetta Farella
2018

Abstract

In this paper, we focus on Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and in particular on its use for ranging, starting from the observation that data on RSSI in BLE comes nearly for free. The SDK typically provides to developers an easy way to extract this data and use it to implement their algorithms. However, RSSI based localization techniques have known limits. An alternative information to be used in ranging for localization purposes is Time-of-Flight (ToF). Still, this data is not provided by the BLE API, therefore we propose a practical approach for ToF extraction on top of BLE to be used as alternative to or in combination with RSSI. Furthermore, with the paper, we release the sources of the library used to perform the ToF measurement on BLE, that can be used per se or as input for a localization algorithm. We tested the measurements indoor and outdoor at different distances, both considering Line-of-Sight free or occluded by user body. We conclude evaluating ranging performance, test repeatability and comparing the obtained results with the popular RSSI based approach.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11582/315168
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